There is an increasing demand on doctors to be better and more effective communicators. This is in line with the understanding that curing patients requires a holistic approach. It is far more than the correct treatment at correct time. Studies have proved that, an effective doctor-patient communication has a positive relationship with the higher rates of patient recovery, therapy compliance, and lower rates of medical malpractice.
Epidemiology is the study and analysis of the distribution, patterns and determinants of health and disease conditions in defined populations. It is a cornerstone of public health, and shapes policy decisions and evidence-based practice by identifying risk factors for disease and targets for preventive healthcare.
Research methodology is the specific procedures or techniques used to identify, select, process, and analyze information about a topic. In a research paper, the methodology section allows the reader to critically evaluate a study's overall validity and reliability.
Medical writing involves writing scientific documents of different types which include regulatory and research-related documents, disease or drug-related educational and promotional literature, publication articles like journal manuscripts and abstracts, content for healthcare websites, health-related magazines or news articles. The scientific information in these documents needs to be presented to suit the level of understanding of the target audience, namely, patients or general public, physicians or the regulators.
Medical humanities is an interdisciplinary field of medicine which includes the humanities such as philosophy, ethics, history, and religion), social science (psychology, sociology, anthropology) and the arts and their application to medical education and practice. Medical humanities can be instrumental in nurturing qualities of compassionate care, professionalism and ethics in healthcare professionals.
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), also known as chronic diseases, tend to be of long duration and are the result of a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental and behaviours factors. NCDs including heart disease, stroke, cancer, diabetes and chronic lung disease, are collectively responsible for almost 70% of all deaths worldwide. Almost three quarters of all NCD deaths, and 82% of the 16 million people who died prematurely, or before reaching 70 years of age, occur in low- and middle-income countries.
Dengue is an epidemic disease which has periodic outbreak. For an example, Sri Lanka experienced an outbreak of dengue with the highest number of cases being reported in 2017 with more than 186101 cases and some 440 deaths. As a strategy to combat these epidemics the Ministry of health and WHO decided that a comprehensive training module on dengue control was necessary that would benefit all the government officials and members of the public whose cooperation was necessary for dengue control activities.
- Teacher: Sudath Samaraweera
Sri Lanka is considered as a country with a high incidence of leptospirosis and it is a disease with a relatively high case fatality rate. Therefore it is important to stay up to date on the current management of the disease.
Sri Lanka is among the low TB prevalence countries in the South East Asia region. The estimated prevalence rate of all forms of TB was 103 per 100,000 population. Sri Lanka has reached & sustained the target of 85% treatment success rate among all new TB cases since 2004.
Throughout the history, influenza pandemics have occurred approximately every 10‐50 years
often causing catastrophic loss of life and significant economic and social impact. In the 20th
century, there were three pandemics; in 1918 (H1N1), 1957 (H2N2), and 1968 (H3N2). Avian influenza caused by H5N1 virus has been widely reported across South East Asia since
December 2003 and it is now well established in the region’s poultry populations. H5N1 virus
which is highly pathogenic has expanded its geographical spread across the globe.
WHO capacity building course on Trauma Care System Planning and Management.
WHO capacity building course on Trauma care quality improvement.
WHO capacity building course on Child Injury Prevention.
Trauma sustained through various mechanisms is a leading cause of death and injury around the world. Most of the injuries are preventable and it is essential that health care professionals are competent in both prevention and treatment of these injuries to minimize the impact and maximize the recovery process.
According to the British Medical Journal, "Clinical governance" is defined as “A framework through which NHS organisations are accountable for continuously improving the quality of their services and safe-guarding high standards of care by creating an environment in which excellence in clinical care will flourish.” The seven pillars of Clinical Governance are clinical effectiveness, risk management, patient experience and involvement, communication, resource effectiveness, strategic effectiveness, and learning effectiveness.
- Teacher: Rasnayake Mudiyanse
Emergency medicine is a vital field of medical practice that focuses on the prompt and effective care of patients facing acute illnesses or traumatic injuries that require immediate attention. Emergency medicine specialists, known as emergency physicians, are trained to assess and manage a wide range of medical conditions, from heart attacks and strokes to severe accidents and critical infections. They work in fast-paced environments, typically in hospital emergency departments, where rapid decision-making, excellent communication, and the ability to handle high-pressure situations are essential.
The role of emergency medicine extends beyond diagnosis and treatment. Emergency physicians must stabilize patients, initiate life-saving interventions, and coordinate with other medical specialists to ensure the best possible outcome. They play a critical role in triaging patients based on the severity of their conditions, prioritizing care for those in the most critical condition. Additionally, emergency medicine practitioners often engage in preventive education, teaching communities about safety measures to minimize accidents and injuries that might lead to emergency situations. This specialty is demanding, challenging, and rewarding, as emergency physicians make a significant impact on patients' lives during their most vulnerable moments.
Psychoactive substance use and substance use disorders (SUDs) continue to be major problems around the world, taking a toll on global health and on social and economic functioning. The United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) reports that, in 2014, some 247 million people between ages 15 and 64 had used illicit substances1 at least once in the previous year.
Having overcome a three decade long terrorist conflict, Sri Lanka has begun its “transformation towards a sustainable and resilient society”. UN has recognized Sri Lanka among “high human development” achieved countries. Yet many challenges are to be encountered and many areas need to be progressed.
Breast cancer is the commonest cancer reported in Sri Lanka and it accounted for 24% of all new cancer cases in females in year 2018 according to the WHO. Therefore it is essential for the doctors in the country to stay up to date on the prevention, early detection and management of the disease.
Cervical cancer is the second most frequent cancer in the women of Sri Lanka. It is estimated that every year 643 women die from the disease in the country. Several strategies are in place in the health care sector for the prevention, early detection and the management of the condition. These include the recently started HPV vaccination programme and the Pap smear test which has been available through the well women clinics for years.
Gastroenterology covers a wide area of diseases from the common ones such as gastro-oesophageal reflux disease to rare diseases requiring specialist care. The management of gastroenterological diseases have developed rapidly during recent times.
Alcoholic liver disease causes a high disease burden to the Sri Lankan health care services. There is also an increasing incidence of Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Viral hepatitis is another important disease spectrum encountered in hospitals.
Psychiatry is the branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of mental, emotional and behavioral disorders. People seek psychiatric help for many reasons. Psychiatrists provide psychological treatment, prescribe medications and do procedures such as electroconvulsive therapy.
The reported suicide rate in Sri Lanka by the world population review for 2018 was at 14.6 per 100,000 population. This ranks Sri Lanka 29th among 157 countries. The doctors of the country should be the forerunners in working for the prevention of suicides by debunking the myths in the society about suicide, identifying features of depression, maximizing the support available for those in need and effectively treating mental health disorders.